**π** (say ‘pie’) is the lower case Greek letter symbol that stands for a number defined as the ratio of the **circumference (C)** of a circle divided by its **diameter (d)**.

**Circumference** means the distance around something, like a circle or a polygon. A synonym would be **perimeter**.

A **diameter** is the length of a line that is drawn starting from any point on the circle’s boundary and going through the center point of the circle and then continuing to the opposite boundary point. A **radius (r)** is the length of a line drawn from the center to any point on the circle’s boundary. It is half the diameter. It’s clearer in the diagram:

As a formula (no numbers, please), we write:

** `pi = C/d ` ** **[1]**

If **d = 1 inch**, then because **π** has a fixed, constant value, **C** must be equal to that value of **π inches**.

A closely related formula involving **π** involves the **Area A**, of a Circle and its **radius r**, (remember? – half of the diameter’s length). The formula is:

** `pi = A/r^2 ` ** **[2]**

Most descriptions of **π** state when it was first historically used and trace a series of numerical refinements in its approximated value over the last **4500** years.

A chronology of the computation of **π** from **2500 BC** (calculated as ** `22/7` **) to the present is shown in the following link: **π Chronology**

It shows the date, the person, milestone or event and the decimal value of **π** (or the correct number of decimal digits after **3.**) up through October 8, 2014, when **π** had been computed and verified (anonymously) to `1.33∙10^13` (over **13 Trillion**) decimal digits.

## Classifications

It turns out that **π** is an **irrational number**. (**Johann Heinrich Lambert** proved this in **1761**.)

This means that we cannot discover a fraction that provides its value exactly. Writing its decimal digits never ends. So over the years, mathematicians have labored to compute **π** accurately to more and more decimal places using “good” fractions and infinite series where only the first “few” terms are evaluated and summed.

It is also true the **π** is a **transcendental number**. A **transcendental number** is an **irrational number** that is not an **algebraic number**. An **algebraic number** is one that satisfies a polynomial equation with a finite number of terms and with rational coefficients. So, for example, **`sqrt(2)`** is an **irrational** (non-repeating decimal number) and an **algebraic number**, since it is a solution to the algebraic equation: **`x^2 = 2`**

For non-algebraic equations, we have two equations from trigonometry, which use **`pi/4` radians** rather than **45 degrees**:

**tangent`(pi/4) = 1`** **[3]**

and particularly its counterpart:

**arctangent`(1) = pi/4`** **[4]**

is used as a starting point for determining **π** more precisely.

## Rational (Fractional) Approximations

Methods of approximation started with **Archimedes**, who, around 250 BC, applied the ** method of exhaustion** with inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons to enclose the lower and upper bounds of area and circumference of the circle. Shown below are inscribed and circumscribed pentagons, hexagons and octagons (

**n = 5, 6, 8**). Starting with a hexagon, he doubled the sides for inner and outer

**n-gons**until

**n = 96**, finding the inner and outer perimeters at each value of

**n**.

Archimedes found bounds for **π** as:

**`3 + 10/71 < pi < 3 + 10/70`** or `223/71 < pi < 22/7` **[5]**

This gives the value of **π** to 2 decimal places, as **3.14**.

### A Cool Procedure And Shell Script For a better Fraction for π

Using the circumference formula **[1]**, we can create a procedure based on one suggested by **Rhett Allain** (See:

**Best Fraction For π** to calculate a fraction that represents **π** for a given number of digits.

For reference, suppose **π _{ref}** is set to

**3.14159265358979**, which is to

**14**decimal places. We use this 12 step procedure:

- Set
**π**_{ref}= 3.14159265358979 - Set
**(1/π**_{ref}) = 0.31830988618379 - Set
**loopcount = 500** - Set
**C = 22** - Set
**D = 7** - Set Percentage
**Error = 0.001** - Is
**loopcount = 0**?

Then output**BestC, BestD, BestC/BestD, Error, BestLoop**

and**stop** - Set
**π**_{est}= C/D - Calculate Absolute Value of
**E = | (π**_{ref}– π_{est}) / π_{ref}|

via**E = | (π**_{ref}– π_{est}) ∙ (1/π_{ref}) | - Is
**E < Error**?

Then set**BestC = C**, set**BestD=D**, set**Error = E,**

and set**Bestloop = 500 – loopcount** - Is
**π**?_{est}< π_{ref}

Then add**1**to**C**and go to step**12**

Otherwise add**1**to**D**and go to step**12** - Subtract
**1**from**loopcount**and go back to step**7**and compute new**π**_{est}

Here is the bash shell script that I wrote to program this algorithm. It takes slightly under **7.5 seconds** (what’s your hurry?) to finish **500** iterations (on a 2010 vintage 32-bit MacBook Pro) and **3.55 seconds** on a 64-bit GNU/Linux Server.

The script successfully finds the fraction

**`355/113` = 3.141592920353982 [6] **

a close approximation to the reference **π** that is accurate to **6** decimal places. The percentage error using this fraction is **0.0000084913679%**

In this script, the Linux utility **bc** is needed to offer/preserve **15** decimal place precision in the computations it performs. The shell facilities for operating with numbers using anything other than positive integers are minimal.

#! /bin/bash USAGE="Usage: pifraction.bash" # Version 1.0 by arkay on 1/17/2015 # Version 1.1 by arkay on 1/18/2015 # Computed (1/Pi_ref) once and used it to multiply for # % difference. # Set Starting values for variables Pi_ref="3.14159265358979" Pi_ref_inv="0.31830988618379" loopcount=500 C=22 D=7 Error="0.001" # loop 500 times until (( loopcount < 1 )) do # Calculate Pi.est Pi_est=$(echo "scale=15; $C/$D" | bc -l) # Calculate the percentage error E E=$(echo "scale=15; ($Pi_ref - $Pi_est)*$Pi_ref_inv" | bc -l) if [ "${E%%[0-9.]*}" == "-" ] #Apply Absolute Value: # extract first character of E, either "–" or "" then E=$(echo "scale=15; (-1)*$E" | bc -l) fi # Compare E with current minimum % Error T=$( echo "scale=15; $E<$Error" | bc -l ) if [ "$T" -eq "1" ] # bc returns 1 if inequality true then BestC=$C; BestD=$D; Error=$E; BestLoop=$(expr 500 - $loopcount) fi # Compare Pi_est with Pi_ref S=$( echo "scale=15; $Pi_est<$Pi_ref" | bc -l ) if [ "$S" -eq "1" ] # bc returns 1 if inequality true then (( C += 1)) else (( D += 1)) fi (( loopcount -= 1 )) done # Produce the results BestCoverD=$(echo "scale=15; $BestC/$BestD" | bc -l) echo "BestC=$BestC BestD=$BestD BestCoverD=$BestCoverD" echo "Pi_ref=$Pi_ref Error=$Error BestLoop=$BestLoop" exit # Normal stopping point # End of pifraction.bash

Output results from this shell script are shown as:

`BestC=355 BestD=113 BestCoverD=3.141592920353982
Pi_ref=3.14159265358979 Error=.000000084913679 BestLoop=439`

In my next post about **π**, I will write about greater decimal place approximators and Interesting **π** activities to try.

Oh, one last thing…

This is a delightful Math Trick attributed to Martin Gardner:

Write all 26 letters of the alphabet, but start with the letter J as shown:

JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHI

Then, remove all the letters that have vertical symmetry as shown:

JKL N PQRS Z BCDEFG

Now, count the letters that remain in each subset: **3 1 4 1 6**.

BarbI didn’t understand the math trick. What do you mean by “vertical symmetry?”

RobertPost authorHi Barb,

To explain this, write the letter Y. If you now place a real (or imaginary) mirror that stands out from the page on top of the letter Y at its center, then by looking at the mirror side and the right half of the letter, The letter Y can still be seen. Whenever this is true, the letter has vertical symmetry.

If you notice the letters that are removed from the alphabet starting with J, each has a vertical symmetry. I hope this helps you to understand vertical symmetry and the math trick.

Pingback: π GPS (Greater Precision Solutions) | Math-Linux Insights